Lesson 1: Cause and Effect Signal Words
- Learning Goal
- Use signal words (if, then, because, since, so, before, after) to show cause-and-effect relationships.
- Approximately 50 minutes
- Necessary Materials
Provided: Direct Teaching Example Chart, Independent Practice Worksheet
Not Provided: When I Grow Up . . . by Peter Horn, chart paper, markers
will explain that there are signal words that can help readers to identify cause-and-effect relationships. I will show a chart of everyday cause-and-effect relationships and identify the signal words in each example. (Direct Teaching Example Chart is provided below in Teacher and Student Materials.) I will model writing a cause-and-effect sentence using the signal words.
Ask: How did I show cause and effect relationships in the sentences? Students should respond that you used cause and effect signal words such as if, the, because, and since.
will work together to identify the cause-and-effect signal words in the book, When I Grow Up . . . by Peter Horn. We will also use signal words to create sentences about everyday cause-and-effect relationships.
TIP: During the Guided Practice, chart the cause-and-effect sentences from the book along with the signal words to better illustrate each relationship.
will use signal words to write sentences to show cause-and-effect relationships. (Student Independent Practice worksheet is provided below.)
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Build Student Vocabulary nuzzling
|Tier 2 Word: nuzzling|
|Contextualize the word as it is used in the story||When Sebastian and his father were talking, Sebastian was nuzzling his father.|
|Explain the meaning student-friendly definition)||Nuzzling means cuddling or pushing your nose against something to show love. When Sebastian and his father were nuzzling, they were cuddling with their noses.|
|Students repeat the word||Say the word nuzzling with me: nuzzling.|
|Teacher gives examples of the word in other contexts||A dog will nuzzle his master to show affection. A father might nuzzle his baby’s cheeks to let the baby know how he feels. A hippopotamus might nuzzle a log to move it to another place.|
|Students provide examples||Think of a time when an animal or person nuzzled you. Start by saying, “_________ nuzzled me when ______________________”|
|Students repeat the word again.||What word are we talking about? Nuzzling|
|Additional Vocabulary Words||murmured, smeared|
Pause while reading pages 13-14. Explain that pirates were a real problem in the 1600s and 1700s. Famous pirates include Blackbeard and Captain Kidd, who terrorized trading ships and buried their stolen treasures on remote islands. Much of the pirate activity happened along trade routes, such as the Caribbean Sea. Today, we still have pirates. On the coast of Somalia in East Africa, Somalian pirates chase and capture ships traveling near their coast. They hold their crews hostage and demand a ransom from the government that owns the ship.