Lesson 2: Cause and Effect Relationships in Historical Fiction
Pink and Say | 600L
- Learning Goal
- Identify multiple causes and effects in historical fiction.
- Approximately 50 minutes
- Necessary Materials
Provided: Cause and Effects Civil War Chart, Direct Teaching/Guided Practice Example Chart
Not Provided: Pink and Say by Patricia Polacco, chart paper, markers, lined paper
will provide background knowledge by discussing the Civil War and some of the causes and effects of this war, including slavery, division of the country, technology, transportation, and setting. (Direct Teacher Example Chart is provided below in Teacher and Student Materials.) I will begin reading the first five pages of Pink and Say by Patricia Polacco, stopping to model how to identify cause-and-effect relationships in the story. (See Direct Teaching and Guided Practice Teacher Example Chart provided below.)
Ask: How did I identify cause and effect relationships in the story? Students should respond that you read carefully and looked for events in the text that seem related. You then used information from the text to determine what caused different events, and to see what happened directly as a result of specific events or actions.
will continue to read and work together to identify and discuss the cause-and-effect relationships in Pink and Say by Patricia Polacco. (See Direct Teaching and Guided Practice Teacher Example Chart provided below.) Using the chart we will discuss the multiple causes of an effect and multiple effects of a cause. For example, because Pink was separated from his company he found Say and was able to save his life. Say may have died if Pink did not find him. Because Say survived, the story of Pink lives on many years later.
will write an explanation of the causes of Pink getting killed and the effects of Say surviving.
Build Student Vocabulary coward
|Tier 2 Word: coward|
|Contextualize the word as it is used in the story||“I’m a coward and a deserter.”|
|Explain the meaning student-friendly definition)||A coward is someone who fearful and not brave in the face of danger. When Sheldon says that he is a coward, he means that he is too afraid to go back to the war.|
|Students repeat the word||Say the word coward with me: coward.|
|Teacher gives examples of the word in other contexts||When I was younger, I used to be a coward about speaking in front of audiences – I was always afraid. Animals who act like cowards often run away from scary situations.|
|Students provide examples||When were you a coward about something? Start by saying, “I was a coward when _____________.”|
|Students repeat the word again.||What word are we talking about? coward|
|Additional Vocabulary Words||mere, descendants|
Before reading Pink and Say, explain to students that you are going to read a book about the Civil War. The Civil War is was a U.S. war between the Northern and Southern States, and it was one of the most violent and devastating events in U.S. history. President Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery, so 15 Southern states that practiced slavery decided to secede or break apart from the U.S. These 15 states called themselves the Confederate States of America. President Lincoln said that he would not accept secession and fought to keep those states in the Union. The soldiers fighting for the North were "Union" soldiers, and those fighting for the South were "Confederates." Share additional information about the Civil War depending on the level of background support that your students need.
Texts & Materials
(To see all of the ReadWorks lessons aligned to your standards, click here.)